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Oceanography

Oceanography encompasses many diverse disciplines, relating to the physical, chemical and biological processes which occur in the Earth’s oceans. Stable isotope analysis provides a powerful means to trace these processes, both modern and ancient; palaeoceangraphy uses oxygen stable isotope signatures of materials preserved in ice cores or sediments to elucidate the history of sea-surface or deep sea temperatures. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen can also reveal the hydrology of oceanic waters, tracing the movement and circulation of waters, evaporitic processes, and meteorological influences on local, regional or global scales.

Nutrient cycling and ecology of the world’s oceans is also of interest; carbon, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotopes are powerful tools which may be deployed to trace algal activity, elucidate food chain structures within surface or benthic communities, and trace fluxes of nutrients throughout the seasons. Stable isotope analysis is particularly useful for exploring the unusual frontiers of deep hydrothermal systems, where unusual chemosynthetic organisms are the lynchpins of the communities which thrive under those extreme conditions.

Oceanography publications using our instrumentation

Our customers use our instruments to do some amazing research in the oceanography application field. To show you how they perform their research and how they use our IRMS instruments, we have collected a range of peer-reviewed publications which cite our products. You can find the citations below and then follow the links to the publishing journal should you wish to download the publication.

If you would like to investigate our available citations in more detail, or email the citation list to yourself or your colleagues then take a look at our full citation database.

83 results:

Age model, physical properties and paleoceanographic implications of the middle Pleistocene core sediments in the Choshi area, central Japan
Island Arc (2006)
Koji Kameo, Makoto Okada, Moamen El-Masry, Toshio Hisamitsu, Saneatsu Saito, Hiroomi Nakazato, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Minoru Ikehara, Hisato Yasuda, Hiroshi Kitazato, Asahiko Taira

A continuous, well-preserved core was obtained from the Choshi area, on the Pacific side of Japan, to investigate paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes around the northwestern Pacific region during the middle Pleistocene. Siliciclastic sequences in the core are divided into five formations - the Obama, Yokone, Kurahashi and Toyosato Formations in the Inubo Group and the Katori Formation, in ascending order. Examination of calcareous nannofossils and magnetic polarities detected four datums in the core sediments of the Inubo Group: the top of Reticulofenestra asanoi, the base of Helicosphaera inversa, the top of Pseudoemiliania lacunosa and the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary. Fourteen marine isotope stages (MIS24-MIS11) were identified in the δ18O and δ13C records based on detected datums and the graphic correlation with the standard stack oxygen isotope curve. Magnetic susceptibility and gamma-ray attenuation porosity evaluator density were also measured and low values characterize the glacial intervals. Biogenic sedimentation by primary production may be larger during the glacial periods because of invasions of nutrient-rich northern surface-waters related to the southward shift of the Kuroshio front in the Choshi area. © 2006 The Authors; Journal compilation © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Tags: carbon , oxygen , ocea , mulitcarb

Inorganic carbon acquisition in red tide dinoflagellates
Plant, Cell and Environment (2006)
Bjorn Rost, Klaus-Uwe Richter, Ulf Riebesell, Per Juel Hansen

Carbon acquisition was investigated in three marine bloom- forming dinoflagellates – Prorocentrum minimum , Hetero- capsa triquetra and Ceratium lineatum . In vivo activities of extracellular and intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O 2 evolution, CO 2 and HCO 3 – uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) in cells acclimated to low pH (8.0) and high pH (8.5 or 9.1). A second approach used short-term 14 C- disequilibrium incubations to estimate the carbon source utilized by the cells. All three species showed negligible extracellular CA (eCA) activity in cells acclimated to low pH and only slightly higher activity when acclimated to high pH. Intracellular CA (iCA) activity was present in all three species, but it increased only in P. minimum with increasing pH. Half-saturation concentrations ( K 1/2 ) for photosynthetic O 2 evolution were low compared to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) kinet- ics. Moreover, apparent affinities for inorganic carbon (Ci) increased with increasing pH in the acclimation, indicating the operation of an efficient CO 2 concentration mechanism (CCM) in these dinoflagellates. Rates of CO 2 uptake were comparably low and could not support the observed rates of photosynthesis. Consequently, rates of HCO 3 – uptake were high in the investigated species, contributing more than 80% of the photosynthetic carbon fixation. The affin- ity for HCO 3 – and maximum uptake rates increased under – higher pH. The strong preference for HCO 3 was also con- firmed by the 14 C-disequilibrium technique. Modes of car- bon acquisition were consistent with the 13 C-fractionation pattern observed and indicated a strong species-specific dif- ference in leakage. These results suggest that photosynthe- sis in marine dinoflagellates is not limited by Ci even at high pH, which may occur during red tides in coastal waters. Key-words

Long-chain alkenone unsaturation index as sea surface temperature proxy in southwest Bay of Bengal
Current Science (2006)
Nittala S Sarma, Sk G Pasha, M Sri Rama Krishna, P V Shirodkar, M G Yadava, K Mohan Rao

This study uses the carbon isotope values (δ13C) to determine how environmental deterioration is expressed in the δ13C values of vegetation and gazelles in the southern Levant. The ultimate goal is to use these modern data to predict the climatic impact of the Younger Dryas (YD). Climatic deterioration associated with the YD has been cited as the trigger for the transition to agriculture in the southern Levant. However, the evidence for the local severity of this climatic event is equivocal. There is disagreement over whether Mediterranean forest was succeeded by arid adapted steppic plant communities in what has been termed the Natufian ‘core area’. The modern data show a moderately negative regression slope between aridity and the δ13C values of both modern C3 plants and gazelle horn keratin within the Mediterranean phytogeographic belt. This pattern is expressed in both seasonal and annual datasets. The incorporation of a C4 plant component into gazelle diets is evident in the arid Mediterranean region, and is more pronounced in the dry season. The latter is apparent even despite interference caused by gazelle foraging on cultivated land. Based on the present day data, it is predicted that the succession of Mediterranean forest by open steppic vegetation would cause a positive shift of >2‰ in the δ13C values of C3 plants and gazelles. The argument is based on the response of C3 vegetation to growth under increasing water stress conditions and the current distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation in relation to rainfall. This study presents a new tool with the potential to assess the climatic severity of the YD and its effect on Natufian foraging strategies.
Tags: carbon , ocea , clim , mulitcarb