Coal, Coke & Biomass

Modern energy services are of utmost importance concerning economic growth and constant improvement in quality of life. All available sources of energy are essential to meet future energy demand, including coal. For the past decade, global coal consumption has grown faster than any other fuel owing to its utilization e.g. in electricity generation, steel production and cement manufacturing. Here, elemental analysis allows for classification of coal based on total carbon and sulfur content which may be converted to CO2 and SO2 emission. Moreover, understanding the carbon-hydrogen ratio reveals the heating value.
In today’s competitive energy market, renewable, sustainable biomass energy sources are becoming more important than ever. Solid biofuels present unique challenges to elemental analyzers due to their difficulty to homogenize and large elemental ratios. Elementar customers benefit from industry-leading technology for quality and emission control in coal, coke, and biomass fuels.

High precision carbon and sulfur analysis

The rapid CS cube is designed for fast, automated analysis of carbon and sulfur in coal and coke. Its outstanding sensitivity (LOD 2 ppm S in coal) makes it a universal system for all samples in this application. By using tin foil to wrap the samples there is no problem with dust and contamination inside the analyzer. The rapid CS cube offers an integrated autosampler as standard for high sample throughput and safe unattended overnight measurements. Thus, customers can enjoy outstanding low maintenance efforts and highest possible instrument uptime. The rapid CS cube is in accordance with all important international coal and coke standards, such as ASTM D4239-12 (S in coal and coke), DIN 51724-3 (S in solid fuels) as well as ISO 15178:2000 (S in soil), DIN 38409 (TOC in solids), etc.

The one and only

There is only one macro analyzer available for simultaneous, one sample CHNS determination on the market: the vario MACRO cube! It is designed to offer industry-leading versatility in elemental analysis. No add-on modules or extra furnaces are required for sulfur analysis. Determine all four elements from just a single sample. The instrument is capable of measuring samples with even the most challenging C/N elemental ratios of up to 7000:1. This can be achieved thanks to the advanced purge and trap-technology provided exclusively by Elementar. With the capability of measuring up to 150 mg of organic samples, even inhomogeneous biomass can be reliably analyzed. The vario MACRO cube addresses all customer needs with macro sample volumes and weights.

Direct high-precision oxygen measurement

Direct oxygen concentration analysis is gaining importance. In the past, oxygen concentrations were often determined indirectly, by subtracting from 100 the sum of C, H, N, and S concentrations (e.g. ASTM D3176). However, the accuracy of indirect oxygen determination via calculation suffers from the cumulative errors inherent in the analytical methods used for each of the other elements. In addition, it is dependent on the ash content which is obtained, thus introducing another source of error into the indirect oxygen determination. Accurate, unbiased determination of oxygen concentration is therefore only possible through direct measurement. In the fuel industry, as well as in other markets, regulations (cf., ASTM D5622) require precise direct determination of oxygen concentrations. The rapid OXY cube® with its patented backflush technology perfectly fits to these analytical demands with its unrivaled precision.

Automated chlorine determination

Chlorine determination in coal used to be a tricky and time consuming task. A common method consists of sample digestion by bomb calorimeter, followed by off-line detection of the chlorine content using microcoulometry or ion chromatography. The elemental analyzers by Elementar allow fully automatic Cl determination by a low-maintenance electrochemical cell. Analysis time of <20 min. is standard. The user has to spend less than 15 min/day on maintenance work which results in more than 90 % uptime. A set of different electrochemical cells covers the measuring range from 0.005 %-100 % Cl in classical elemental analysis. Furthermore the Cl option can be added to all Elementar analyzers which are useable for coal analysis.